Of the many elements required for microbial decomposition, carbon and nitrogen are the most important. Carbon provides both an energy source and and the basic building block making up about 50 percent of the mass of microbial cells. Nitrogen is a crucial component of the proteins, nucleic acids, amino acids, enzymes and co-enzymes necessary for cell growth and function.
The ideal C/N ratio for composting is generally considered to be around 30:1, or 30 parts carbon for each part nitrogen by weight. Why 30:1 At lower ratios, nitrogen will be supplied in excess and will be lost as ammonia gas, causing undesirable odors. Higher ratios mean that there is not sufficient nitrogen for optimal growth of the microbial populations, so the compost will remain relatively cool and degradation will proceed at a slow rate.
In general, materials that are green and moist tend to be high in nitrogen, and those that are brown and dry are high in carbon. High nitrogen materials include grass clippings, plant cuttings, and fruit and vegetable scraps. Brown or woody materials such as autumn leaves, wood chips, sawdust, and shredded paper are high in carbon. You can calculate the C/N ratio of your compost mixture, or you can estimate optimal conditions simply by using a combination of materials that are high in carbon and others that are high in nitrogen.
As composting proceeds, the C/N ratio gradually decreases from 30:1 to 10-15:1 for the finished product. This occurs because each time that organic compounds are consumed by microorganisms, two-thirds of the carbon is given off as carbon dioxide. The remaining third is incorporated along with nitrogen into microbial cells, then later released for further use once those cells die. Although attaining a C/N ratio of roughly 30:1 is a useful goal in planning composting operations, this ratio may need to be adjusted according to the bio availability of the materials in question. Most of the nitrogen in compostable materials is readily available. Some of the carbon, however, may be bound up in compounds that are highly resistant to biological degradation. Newspaper, for example, is slower than other types of paper to break down because it is made up of cellulose fibers sheathed in lignin, a highly resistant compound found in wood.
Corn stalks and straw are similarly slow to break down because they are made up of a resistant form of cellulose. Although all of these materials can still be composted, their relatively slow rates of decomposition mean that not all of their carbon will be readily available to microorganisms, so a higher initial C/N ratio can be planned. Particle size also is a relevant consideration; although the same amount of carbon is contained in comparable masses of wood chips and sawdust, the larger surface area in the sawdust makes its carbon more readily available for microbial use.
Machine Operation: Operation of the machine is very simple. Deposit food waste consisting of least possible non organic waste etc. along with saw dust at inlet of the machine.
Segregate the non degradable materials and use the sweet smelling compost Keep Non degradable materials to minimum. Avoid large pieces of food waste. Keep size of the food waste to around < 4”.